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Crude Oil needs to be distillate at a Crude Oil refinery plant in order to be shipped. This explains how this key link in the Crude Oil refinery value chain works.
The process described in the following is a generalization of the different links in a typical Crude Oil refinery value chain, deviations from this specifically described process occur.
CICG Refining Services Group will refine crude oil shipped from oil/gas drilling/mining cooperatives and JV Partners from Africa, South America, and the Asia, which is transforming the crude oil with chemistry, refining is a chemical process. Crude oil is mainly made up of hydrocarbons – chains of carbon atoms and hydrogen atoms. The chemical bonds that link these chains together can be broken up and linked in different ways. In fact, the hydrocarbon compound is the most versatile on the chemical charts. It can make an estimated 2.5 million possible combinations. Longer, heavier molecules can be transformed into lighter ones and vice versa.
However, crude oil is far from pure. It can also contain substances that need to be removed because they would damage an engine or other machinery. In the refinery, we remove sulphur, nitrogen, oxygen, water, and other trace substances and then dispose of them safely.
This will focus on the second link in the chain, namely the process taking place at the Crude Oil refineryplant before shipment.
Vaporizing the crude oil
The first step in separating oil into useful products involves heating it to 350° Celsius. It is then pumped into a fractioning tower.
If you have ever seen an oil refinery from a distance, these tall, slender towers jut up above the horizon. The vaporized oil rises up the tower through trays with holes in them. As the gas cools, its components condense back into several distinct liquids. Lighter liquids like kerosene and naphtha, a product used in chemicals processing, collect near the top of the tower, while heavier ones like lubricants and waxes fall through weirs to trays at the bottom.
After distillation, gasoline and other engine fuels go on for further processing elsewhere in the refinery. They will leave the refinery by pipeline or truck, having been transformed from a raw material into fuels with marketable octane ratings and specific engine properties.
Demand for gasoline is high, so we use the flexibility of the hydrocarbon compound to turn some of the heavier components from the fractioning tower into gasoline. Reforming and alkylation are two such processes. Cracking is another. It breaks large hydrocarbon molecules down into smaller ones, making the product have a lower viscosity. It is a process developed by BP heritage company Amoco, and its standard practice for oil companies today.
However, many steps precede this. You have to find by burrowing mineral oil, and bring it to the surface by drilling. This research and the exploitation of ("upstream"). The oil processing ("downstream") consists of several steps: the oil is shipped by pipeline to the refinery, where different fuels and other products are distributed among the fuels filling stations, where the supply takes place. Of course, the "oil pump" to "tank station" each step is required. However, the most complex element of the chain oil refinery, where the oil (paraffin, aromatic and naphthenic distillate) hydrocarbons will be held in groups. The development of oil refineries can be very different from the simple physical separating the complicated chemical transformations.
The first step in any refinery is that the oil is removed from the Inbox to detect contaminants (salts, minerals, water), then it follows that products of atmospheric distillation gas ("LPG"), the (raw) gasoline, kerosene, gas oil, and the crude distillation, at the bottom are products of gas. The gasoline and diesel fuel before it is included in parentheses following the word "crude" because these fuels a modern car would not work. The gas is then vacuum distillation is produced from a variety of lubricants based on oil and the bottom products are made of bitumen and asphalt. This "separation process" is for each refinery.
Those refineries, where in addition to atmospheric and vacuum distillations some of the conversion is carried out, yet simple (hydro skimming) as called by refiners. The feature that determines the composition of crude oil products share The so-called "conversion" refineries include simple refineries every element, but a number of (conversion) unit also have aimed to change the products share The conversion is to lower value products as "incipit" today (e.g. petrol, diesel) to produce.
The so-called "deep conversions" are becoming more and more common to refineries, as the demand for easy, clean products (e.g. petrol, diesel) and reduce the heavy, high sulphur-containing products (e.g. heating oil) under his wing.
This type of additional refineries (residual) converter units (e.g., coke, hydrocracking) can be found. The refinery is a stream (oil) enter and many product streams (fuels, heating oil, lubricants, bitumen, coke etc.) exit. A refinery, an enormous amount of, millions of tons of processed oil annually and highly simplified operation of the figure below. (Omitted for reasons of clarity the fundamental units, such as electricity, water, steam, waste water treatment or extraction of the sulphur).
The CICG Refining Group will operate a refining plants facility capable of separating these different products. The planned CICG refineries facilities will also include an assay laboratory with storage tank capacities using ASTM International, is the Institute, internationally recognized, that approves all Standards, Tests and Procedures used in the Oil Industry and to be referred in the Agreement to the latest revised edition with amendments in force to date. It will operate as a crude oil feeder facility with refinery Partner Refiners.
The refinery has a wastewater treatment plant where wastewater from the process and tank area is treated. Wastewater passes through an inlet screen followed by oil separation (gravity separation) in an oil separation tank. Separated oil is taken care of and the water is collected in a 10 000-m3 buffer tank. The water then passes through two parallel API separators, in which further gravity separation of oil occurs. After neutralization to pH 6-8, the water is pumped through five parallel sand filters. After leaving the filters, the water is biologically treated in a MBBR (Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor). Bio sludge is then separated in a dissolved air flotation unit (DAF), where phosphorous also is chemically precipitated. The final step is a disc filter, which takes care of suspended solids and further reduce oil-, phosphorous- and nitrogen compounds. Before discharge to the Baltic Sea, the water passes through a lagoon in which organic substances are naturally biodegraded.
The objectives are based on identified environmental aspects for the refinery, the environmental policy and the overarching environmental objectives for the refinery.
Targets and environmental management programme have been drawn up for every objective and are broken down at the relevant function level.
Reduce emissions to air
Reduce relative energy consumption (per quantity of feedstock)
Remediation of contaminated land
Reduce emissions to Baltic Sea
Minimize the number of environmental deviations
Shipping BLCO overseas is by far the most common way to transport crude oil in bulk form. When crude oil refinery plants and fields are situated in remote areas, transportation of BLCO by ship is often the preferred, or perhaps even the only, alternative for transporting crude oil. Therefore, BLCO ships makes a key link in the BLCO value chain, enabling transportation of oil between the crude oil refinery plant and final petrochemicals refinery site.
Shipping LPFO overseas is by far the most common way to transport LPFO in bulk form. When crude oil refinery plants and fields are situated in remote areas, transportation of LPFO by ship is often the preferred, or perhaps even the only, alternative for transporting low pour fuel oil. Therefore, LPFO ships makes a key link in the LPFO value chain, enabling transportation of oil between the crude oil refinery plant and heating site.